Information Warfare, Cyberwar – Future of Internet & Computer Warfare

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Information Warfare, Cyberwar – Future of Internet & Computer Warfare

General Resources

Information War and Cyberspace Security
Information Warfare and INFOSEC
Information Warfare Research Center
Information Warfare, I-War, IW, C4I, Cyberwar
Terrorisme informatique : Quels sonts les risques ? – Bookmarks
Information Warfare and The Military
Information Warfare: Bibliography
A Simulation of Durito
Autonomous Mobile Cyber Weapon
From Infoware to Infowar
From InfoWar to Knowledge Warfare: Preparing for the Paradigm Shift
C4I-Pro Archive: [C4I-Pro] INFOWAR R&D
C4I-Pro Archive by thread
NPS Systems Technology Labs
NPS Joint C4I Systems Home Page
Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
Washington Technology Online
Cybercrime, Infowar, and Infosecurity
Infowar and Disinformation:
Infowar Slides
CyberSoft White Papers
The World’s Greatest Links to Privacy Sites
Information Warfare on the Web
Strategic Information Warfare: A New Face of War
Battfield of the Future
Battfield of the Future
Battlefield of the Future
Information Warfare
C4IEWS Information Server
Netsurfer Focus: Computer and Network Security
Glossary of Information Warfare Terms
Information Warfare, I-War, IW, C4I, Cyberwar
Air Intelligence Agency – facing the challenges of Information Warfare
A Theory of Information Warfare
RST: Information Warfare
Information Warfare Sites
Some Future Challenges in Information Warfare
Presenting the SIGNAL Information Warfare Series
Information WarFare Links of the Week
C4I-Pro Main Page
The Low-Tech Side of Information Warfare
NISE East Information Warfare-Protect Systems Engineering Division
Security, Hackers, Information Warfare
I-War Research Group Information Warfare Media-Labs
Information Warfare
Information Warfare Divsion Web Site
SRC EW Courses: Information Warfare Course
Information Warfare Documents
Advanced Displays: Windows Into Information Warfare
Information Warfare
Information Warfare Outlook ’96
I-War (Information Warfare) Research Programs
Information Warfare
Information Warfare Academic Group Home Page
COSC 511 Information Warfare
Information Warfare – Defense Summary Recommendations
NRaD Code D42 Business Areas: Intelligence and Information Warfare Systems
I-War (Information Warfare) Background Links
Index of Perception
The DISA C4ISR Model – Information Warfare Model
Report on the Defensive Information Warfare Symposium, New Orleans, December 11-12 1995
Cybernetics-Information Warfare
Strategic Assessment Center – Information Warfare
Strategic Assessment Center – Information Warfare Links
Strategic Assessment Center – Information Warfare Tools
InfoWarCon 6, Information Warfare and Systems Assurance Conference
Information Warfare
Information Warfare
Information Warfare
Information Warfare – Defense
Weapons of Mass Protection….
IW4 — InfoWarCon (Europe) ’96 Fourth International Conference on Information Warfare: Defining the European Perspective Brussels, Belgium May 23-24 1996
Web Review: CyberWar! (2 of 5)
WWW Sites of Interest
Information Warfare
Welcome to InfoSEC Virtual Network


Here are some links related to intelligence services and
security services around the world. Some of them are very
valuable resources for those interested in information warfare.


ASIO – AustralianSecurity Intelligence Organisation

ASIO is Australia’s equivalent of the CIA, these are the guy’s who are keeping an eye out for the terrorists and baddies of the world and are trying to keep them out of Australia. [unofficial]

Defence Signals Directorate – Information Security Branch

DSD is committed to the Defence mission “to promote the security of Australia and to protect its people and its interests.”


CSIS- Canadian Security Intelligence Service

The people of CSIS are dedicated to the protection of Canada’s national security interests and the safety of Canadians.


Suojelupoliisi – Security Police

Central function areas of the Finnish Security Police is a) to avert espionage and illegal reconnaissance activities against Finland, b) to avert activities which might endanger interior security of Finland and international relations, c) to act against terrorism, d) security guarding and e) preventive work for security. The Finnish Security Police has three operational units, which are divided by their purpose into 1) the Unit of Counter-Espionage, 2) the Security Unit, and 3) the Unit of Development and Supportive Activities.


GCHQ- Government Communications Headquarters

GCHQ plays a vital role in protecting the security of the nation’s official and military communications and advising government and industry on communications and computer security. In addition GCHQ studies a wide range of telecommunications and other electronic signals to provide Britain with crucial defence and foreign intelligence.

M15 Security Service

M15 was set up to counter espionage against British organisations by foreign powers. In recent years its remit has widened to include counter-terrorism, subversion and organised crime. [unofficial]

M16 Security Service

The role of M16 is to obtain and provide information relating to the actions or intentions of persons outside the British Islands, and to perform other tasks relating to the actions or intentions of such persons. [unofficial]

NCIS- The National Criminal Intelligence Service

Britain’s National Criminal Intelligence Service (NCIS) was launched in April 1992 to provide leadership and excellence in criminal intelligence.

United States

CIA -Central Intelligence Agency

CIAproduces intelligence for the President, the Congress and other leaders of the U.S. CIAwas created in 1947 with the signing of the NationalSecurity Act by President Truman.

CIAPublications – World factbook, factbook on intelligence, maps and publications…

CIO- The Central Imagery Office

The mission of CIO is to ensure responsive imagery support to the Intelligence Community, the Department of Defense, the National Security Council, and other US Government departments and agencies. As a Combat Support Agency, CIO is also responsible for ensuring timely imagery support to military operations during peace, crisis, and war

DIA- Defence Intelligence Agency

The DIA’s mission is to provide timely, objective and cogent military intelligenceto the warfighters and to the decisionmakers and policymakers of the U.S. Department of Defence and the U.S. Government.

FBI – Federal Bureau of Investigation

The mission of the FBIis uphold the law, to protect the U.S. from foreign intelligence and terrorist activities and to provide leadership and law enforcement assistance to federal, state, local, and international agencies.

FBIPublications – Periodicals, uniform crime reports.

Headquarters Air Intelligence Agency

AIA’s mission is to exploit and defend the information domain. AIA delivers flexible collection, tailored air and space intelligence, weapons monitoring, and information warfare products and services.

NIMA – National Imagery and Mapping Agency

NIMA provides timely, relevant, and accurate imagery, imagery intelligence, and geospatial information in support of national security objectives.

NSA – National Security Agency

The NSA is responsible for the centralized coordination, direction, and performance of highly specialized technical functions in support of U.S. Government activities to protect U.S. communications and produce foreign intelligence information.

Information Systems Security Organization – The NSA INFOSEC-mission provides leadership, products, and services to protect classified and unclassified national security systems against exploitation due to interception, unauthorized access, or related technical intelligence threats.

U.S. Secret Service

The Secret Service protects the life of the President of the U.S. and other leaders and their immediate families, some official representatives,the White House and so on

In Depth Readings and InfoWar Material

Advanced Displays: Windows into InformationWarfare (Lance A.Glasser) In order to fight and win on the battlefield of the future, U.S. forces must first win the information war.

Defending Cyberspace and Other Metaphors (Martin Libicki, National Defense University, NDUPress Book, February 1997) Conflict has classically been modeled by orthogonal lines of defense and attack. Today’s asymmetric warfare is about points, blots, and gated fences, topological forms with particular applicability to information warfare.

Ensuring Joint Force Superiority in the InformationAge (Defense Issues, Volume 11, Number 82) We are just scratching the surface on what can be done. We are just at the beginning of exploiting information systems for our warfighters. The InformationWar (Peter Lamborn Wilson) A speech given at the opening of Public Netbase t0 on the 17th of March 1995.

InformationWar and Cyberspace Security (RANDResearchReview, Fall 1995) In this issue of the RAND Research Review, [we] touch on some of the broad societal implications of the information revolution and look in greater detail at what it may mean for the conduct of war and the nation’s security.

Information Warfare and Its Importance (USAFFact Sheet 95-20) There are many views on what constitutes information warfare, but the U.S. Air Force defines it as “any action to deny, exploit, corrupt or destroy the enemy’s information and its functions while protecting Air Force assets against those actions and exploiting its own military information operations.” Therefore, information warfare is any action which attacks, protects or uses military information functions or operations.

The Mesh and the Net – Speculations on Armed Conflict In an Age of Free Silicon (Martin Libicki, NationalDefense University, McNair Paper 28,March 1984)

The NextEnemy (Martin Libicki, NationalDefense University, Strategic Forum, INSS, Number 35, July 1995) Future threats may be divided into four categories: peers, bullies, terrorism, and chaos. The threat environment twenty years hence is unlikely to be of one type. Nevertheless, framing the choices facing planners shows what the U.S. armed forces might look like if one or another type of threat were to become the predominant focus of the Defense Department.

Papers on Information Warfare SEVERAL different hypertext documents on information warfare. Highly recommended!

The Principles of War in the 21st Century:Strategic Considerations (William T. Johnsen Douglas V. Johnson II James O. Kievit Douglas C. Lovelace, Jr. and Steven Metz) Because war at the strategic level is an intellectual process and the development and implementation of strategy is a creative activity, some form of intellectual framework is required to shape the strategist’s thought processes.

Strategic InformationWarfare:A New Face of War (Roger C. Molander, Andrew S. Riddile, Peter A. Wilson, RAND 1996) This report summarizes research performed by RAND for the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence).

A Theory of InformationWarfare. Preparing for 2020. (Colonel Richard Szafranski,USAF) The United States should expect that its information systems are vulnerable to attack. It should further expect that attacks, when they come, may come in advance of any formal declaration of hostile intent by an adversary state.

The Unintended Consequences of Information Technologies (Dr.David S. Alberts, NationalDefense University, NDUPress Book, April 1996) The purpose of this analysis is to identify a strategy for introducing and using information age technologies that accomplishes two things: first, the identification and avoidance of adverse unintended consequences associated with the introduction and utilization of information technologies; and second, the ability to recognize and capitalize on unexpected opportunities.

Weapons of Mass Protection (Chris Morris, Janet Morris, Thomas Baines) Nonlethality, information warfare, and airpower in the age of chaos.

What is InformationWarfare? (Martin Libicki, NationalDefense University, ACISPapers 3,August 1995) Libicki separates seven different forms of information warfare:1) command-and-control warfare, 2) intelligence-based warfare, 3) electronic warfare, 4) psychological warfare, 5) hacker warfare, 6) economic information warfare and 7) cyber warfare.

Arquilla, J.J. and Ronfeldt, D.F., “Cyberwar and Netwar: New Modes, Old Concepts, of Conflict”, Rand Research Review, Fall 1995.(html 10 KB)

Information conflicts will change both the nature and organization of warfare crossing economic, political and social boundaries. Future conflicts may not be limited to rival nations, but may include non-state groups either as targets or aggressors.

Berger, A., “The Low-Tech Side of Information Warfare”, Air Chronicles, Contributor’s Corner, 1997?. (14 KB)

Discussion of the role of information warfare as an extension of the decision making process (OODA loop) and how it may be applied against low-tech advisories.

Brewin, B. and Harreld, H., “U.S. Sitting Duck, DOD Panel Predicts”, Federal Computer Week, November 11, 1996. (8 KB)

Short article on the release of the Defense Science Board’s report on information warfare defense.

Browning, G., “Infowar”, GovExec.Com, April 21, 1997. (21 KB)

Discussion of IW scenarios and capabilities with an emphasis on threats to public and military infrastructures.

Buchan, G., “Information War and the Air Force: Wave of the Future? Current Fad?”, RAND Issue Paper, March 1996. (83 KB)

An introduction to the current debate and hype surrounding information warfare. The paper continues with the role of the U.S. Air Force and the broader dimensions as it applies to national security.

Bugliarello, G., “Telecommunications, Politics, Economics and National Sovereignty: A New Game”, Airpower Journal, Spring 1996.(PDF Format)

The fact that telecommunications and information networks cross political and organizational boundaries is a critical component in understanding infrastructure threats. However, it is often overlooked by policy makers. This paper discusses this issue and various implications.

Clarke, R., “Extra-Organisational Systems: A Challenge to the Software Engineering Paradigm”, IFIP World Congress, Madrid, September 1992. (44 KB)

A theoretical look at the relationship between organizations. Good for those studying network inter-relationships and cascading failures. This level of understanding is critical in assessing risk in today’s interconnected businesses.

“Cornerstones of Information Warfare”. (37 KB)

A U.S. Air Force publication describing “how Air Force doctrine should evolve to accommodate information warfare. The ultimate goal is a sound foundation on which to base the inevitable changes in organizing, training, equipping, and employing military forces and capabilities.”

Cramer, M.L., “Economic Espionage: An Information Warfare Perspective”, Georgia Tech Research Institute. (10 KB)

A short paper defining components of economic espionage.

Crawford, G.A., “Information Warfare: New Roles for Information Systems in Military Operations”, Air Chronicles. (69 KB)

Unique discussion of various aspects of information warfare: How does information warfare fit into a commander’s decisions (OODA loop) and components (hardware and software) involved the challenge of controlling a potential information conflict.

Czerwinski, T.J., “The Third Wave: What the Tofflers Never Told You”, Strategic Forum, No. 72, April 1996. (17 KB)

Czerwinski argues that the current Revolution in Military Affairs goes beyond the concept of a “Third Wave” and, in fact, the Information Age represents a lose of paradigm.

Defense Science Board, “Report of the Defense Science Board Task Force on Information Warfare-Defense (IW-D)”, November 1996. (html)

An extensive documentation of information warfare with particular attention paid to defense issues. Also, a very good look at indicator and warning assessments to detect pending attacks.

Department of Transportation, “Emerging Issues in Transportation Information Infrastructure Security”, Presented at the Emerging Issues in Transportation Information Infrastructure Security Conference, May 21, 1996. (28 KB)

A look at the specific threats and recommendations for protecting the U.S. transportation infrastructure.

Devost, M.G., “The Digital Threat: United States National Security and Computers”, Presented at the New England Political Science Association Annual Meeting, Salem, MA, April 22-23, 1994. (52 KB)

Overview and examples of electronic threats which pose a threat to national security.

Devost, M.G., “Political Aspects of Class III Information Warfare: Global Conflict and Terrorism”, Presented at the Second International Conference on Information Warfare, Montreal, January 18-19, 1995. (15 KB)

Review of political issues of information warfare and terrorism and solutions from various political views.

Devost, M.G., “National Security in the Information Age”, Masters Thesis, University of Vermont, May 1995. (184 KB)

An in-depth look at the basic aspects of information warfare and the vulnerability of several key infrastructures. Also, includes a good discussion on the political dimension including attractions and deterrents to the use of IW.

Devost, M.G., Houghton, B.K. and Pollard, N.A., “Information Terrorism: Can You Trust Your Toaster?”, Sun Tzu Art of War in Information Warfare Compendium, Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University, 1997. (27 KB)

A good discussion of computer-based terrorism and its relationship to traditional terrorism and information warfare. Tools and targets are examined: Terrorist use of information technology as the target and when it is used as a tool to implement a larger strategy.

Everett, C.B., Dewindt, M. and McDade, S., “The Silicon Spear: An Assessment of Information Based Warfare (IBW) and U.S. National Security”, Sun Tzu Art of War in Information Warfare Compendium, Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University, 1997. (54 KB)

Information warfare is part of a new Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) and requires a new model of warfare. Several key components are discussed including the concept of a quite-war defined as “unattributable strikes which by their very nature preclude moving further up the conflict spectrum” and Gray Area Phenomena (GAP) “defined as threats to nation-states by non-states actors and non-governmental processes and organizations”.

Fast, W.R., “Knowledge Strategies: Balancing Ends, Ways and Means in the Information Age”, Sun Tzu Art of War in Information Warfare Compendium, Institute for National Strategic Studies, National Defense University, 1997. (52 KB)

A thought-provoking paper discussing how the information age changes the very definition of national strategic interests. The effects of an information based society are analyzed in terms of national objectives (ends), the actions taken to meet those objectives (ways) and methods used (means). This analysis concludes that current institutional framework is not adequate in an information economy. The author looks at some of the key elements necessary to redefine national interest and the military requirements to defend them.

Flood, A., “The Peruvian Embassy Siege and What It Tells Us about the Media”, April 23, 1997. (34 KB)

Anarchist’s view of the use of the Internet during the NRTA’s occupation of the Japanese embassy in Peru and the future role of online information, the media and Netwars in radical and terrorist activities.

Fowler, B.W. and Peterson, D.R., “Induced Fragility in Information Age Warfare”, OR/MS Today, Vol. 24, No. 2, April 1997. (26 KB)

Technology, when combined with standard military operations, create new risks and vulnerabilities. Since this technology crosses both civilian and military boundaries, creating the potential for increased loss.

Fogleman, R.R., “Fundamentals of Information Warfare – An Airman’s View”, Presented to the National Security Association, National Defense University Foundation Conference on the Global Information Explosion, Washington, D.C., May 16, 1995. (26 KB)

General Fogleman discusses the historical and current uses of information in warfare.

Foran, B., “Information Warfare: Attacks on Personal Information”, Address to the 91st Annual Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police Conference, Ottawa, August 26, 1996. (29 KB)
Fredericks, B., “Information Warfare: The Organizational Dimension”, Sun Tzu Art of War in Information Warfare Compendium, Institute for National. Strategic Studies, National Defense University, 1997. (42 KB)

“This paper specifically addresses the role of organizations as an essential element in developing and implementing a viable IW strategy. To provide a common reference point, the paper begins by defining IW. Next it analyzes the progress achieved to date in institutionalizing IW by assigning responsibility to specific organizations. Both the progress achieved within DOD and the significant challenges remaining to be overcome at the interagency level are examined. The paper concludes with a set of recommendations on how to better organize the IW effort and enable it to emerge as a decisive element of U.S. national security strategy in the 21st century.”

Garigue, R., “Information Warfare: Developing a Conceptual Framework”, Draft Discussion Paper. (html)

Develops a basic foundation of information and its role in warfare by proposing a ‘conceptual analysis framework’.

General Accounting Office (GAO), “GAO Executive Report – B-266140”, Report to the Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate, May 22, 1996. (83 KB)

Detailed report on attacks to U.S. Department of Defense computer systems with recommendations for improved security.

Gertz, B., “Eligible Receiver”, The Washington Times, April 16, 1998. (10 KB)

Report on the a U.S. Government IW exercise to simulate and understand a large scale attack against information infrastructures.

Gompert, D.C., “Keeping Information Warfare in Perspective”, Rand Research Review, Fall 1995.[7 KB)

There is much unknown about the real nature of information warfare and the threats it may pose.

“Information Warfare: A Two-Edged Sword”, Rand Research Review, Fall 1995. (9 KB)

Presents the results of a series of simulated information attacks and highlights the differences between traditional and information warfare.

“Information Security – Computer Attacks at Department of Defense Pose Increasing Risks”, GAO Report to Congressional Requesters, GAO/AIMD-96-84, May 1996. (86 KB)

Congressional Report on intruder penetrations into DoD systems. Documents several specific examples, discusses current measures to limit access and make recommendations for further improvements.

Haeni, R.E., “An Introduction to Information Warfare”, Term Paper Written for Computer Security Systems I, George Washington University, December 1995. (html 44 KB)

An introductory paper intended for a non-technical audience giving a good overview of information warfare and a review of the literature.

Harley, J.A., “Information, Technology, and the Center of Gravity”, Naval War College Review, Winter 1997. (60 KB)

A good paper on the use of the military concept of Center of Gravity defined as “those characteristics, capabilities, or localities from which a military force derives its freedom of action, physical strength, or will to fight”. Specifically, the author looks at the use of information as a Center of Gravity.

Information Assurance Task Force, “Risk Assessment of the Electric Power Industry”, Executive Summary, March 1997. (6 KB)

“The probability of a nationwide disruption of electric power through electronic intrusion short of a major coordinated attack is extremely low, but the potential for short-term disruptions at the regional level is increasing.”

Ivefors, G., “Information Warfare: Defeat the Enemy Before Battle – A Warfare Revolution in the 21st Century?”, Linköping University, October 22, 1996. (10 KB)

Overview of information warfare issues, mostly based on Magsig’s Information Warfare in the Information Age.

Kluepfel, H., “Countering Non-lethal Information Warfare”, Proceedings of the IEEE 29th Annual International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology, 1995. (26 KB)

Excellent paper on the vulnerabilities faced in information warfare with many specific examples. Discusses the interdependencies of infrastructure information networks and the potential for a cascading effect of damage from one network to another.

Konopatzke, K., “Information Warfare, Same Wine, Different Bottle?”, Air Chronicles. (6 KB)

Short essay discussing the debate on establishing an information corps as a new branch of the military and use of information warfare against non-technically advanced countries.

Koprowski, G., “Hacking the Power Grid”, Wired News, June 4, 1998. (22 KB)

A good look at the issues involved in attacks against the power generation infrastructure. The article points out that while an attack may cause some disruption and damage, a true infrastructure attack would be very difficult.

Levin, C., “Statement of Senator Carl Levin (D-Mich) before Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations on DoD’s Vulnerability to Information Warfare”, May 22, 1996. (5 KB)

Introductory statement made during hearings in the U.S. Senate.

Lewis, B.C., “Information Warfare”, proceeding from the policy conference, A Perspective on Intelligence Reform from Outside the Beltway, Princeton University, January 1997.(33 KB)

“This report aims to expand upon the work done by the Brown Commission and other recent commissions on the role of the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC) in advancing our foreign policy interests with and protecting our national security against information warfare. The Brown Commission dedicates only three paragraphs to affirming a role for the IC in information warfare policy but, calls for better definition of the role of the Intelligence Community in collecting information about information warfare threats posed by other countries and non-governmental groups. This report provides a more in depth context in which to understand “information warfare,” discusses offensive and defensive information warfare and the role of the IC in them, and assesses the adjustment to this Post-Cold War era national security threat.”

Libicki, M., “Mesh and the Net: Speculations on Armed Conflict in an Age of Free Silicon”, McNair Papers, March 1994. (html)

Libicki introduces the concept of a battlefield mesh of small, cheap silicon sensors and analyzes the implications to current military platforms and organizations as well as the current civilian information net.

Libicki, M., “What is Information Warfare”, Strategic Forum, No. 28, May 1995. (html)

This article offers definitions of various information warfare concepts and discusses the U.S.’s vulnerability versus offensive capabilities.

Libicki, M., “Defending Cyberspace and Other Metaphors”, National Defense University Press, February 1997. (html)

A set of essays providing a timely re-assessment of IW.

Luiijf, E., “Information Assurance and the Information Society”, Publication no: 1999.503, EICAR 1999 Conference, Aalborg, Denmark, 1999. (PDF Format)

“This paper discusses “Information Assurance”, the civil defense side of “Information Warfare”, and the taxonomy of threat areas in the information age in the 21st century. Currently, governments, society and industry largely neglect these upcoming information warfare threats. The paper identifies current and forecasted issues to be discussed and dealt with by politicians, governments, society and industry.”

McKenna, P., “Info Warriors: Battling for Data Dominance in the Fifth Dimension”, Airman, September 1996. (13 KB+graphic)

Information will be a primary focus in future conflicts not just as intelligence for battlefield decisions, but as a target and weapon.

Miller, J.H., “Information Warfare: Issues and Perspectives”, Sun Tzu Art of War in Information Warfare Compendium, Institute for National. Strategic Studies, National Defense University. (42 KB)

A good background article on the current state of thinking concerning information warfare and its context and role in military strategy.

Minihan, K., “Vulnerabilities of the National Information Infrastructure”, Testimony before the U.S. Senate Governmental Affairs Committee Hearing on Vulnerabilities of the National Information Infrastructure, June 24, 1998. (15 KB)

Key testimony by NSA Director Minihan on the state of infrastructure vulnerability. Includes references to China’s efforts to create an offensive IW capability.

Molander, R.C., Riddile A.S. and Wilson, P.A., “Strategic Information Warfare: A New Face of War”, RAND Report, MR-661-OSD, 1996. (PDF Format)

An in-depth analysis of the issues involved within information warfare in the post-cold war. Issues include cost, blurring of traditional boundaries between military threats and criminal activities, difficulties in tactical warning, attack assessment and strategic intelligence, coalitions, and vulnerabilities.

Morris, C., Morris, J. and Baines, T., “Weapons of Mass Protection: Nonleathality, Information Warfare and Airpower in the Age of Chaos”, AirPower Journal, Spring 1995. (58 KB)

Discusses the possibility of using information warfare techniques to overwhelm an enemy in military operations where lethal force may be politically undesirable such as in peace keeping or other non-war operations.

Overbeck, C., “Pentagon CyberTroops: The National Security Apparatus Gears Up for Infowar”, Parascope, 1997. (html)

A three part alternative look at information warfare with a conspiracy twist.

Pasternak, D. and Auster, B.B., “Terrorism at the Touch of a Keyboard”, U.S. News Online, July 13, 1998. (10 KB)

This article discusses recent intrusions and threats to critical information systems such as 911 and looks at the results of the IW exercise named “Eligible Receiver”.

Petersen, M.J., “Diving in Headfirst: The Air Force and Information Warfare”, Air Chronicles. (5 KB)

A short essay concerning the over emphasis within the U.S. Air Force on information warfare.

Presidential Directive, “The Clinton Administration’s Policy on Critical Infrastructure Protection”, White Paper, Presidential Decision Directive 63, May 22, 1998. (36 KB)

“This White Paper explains key elements of the Clinton Administration’s policy on critical infrastructure protection.”

Pietrucha, B., “US Foes Targeting American Computer Networks”, Newsbytes, July 21, 1998. (17 KB)

Report on the testimony of CIA Director George Tenet before the U.S. Senate of the threats to the U.S. information infrastructure.

Rathmell, A., et al, “The IW Threat from Sub-State Groups: an Interdisciplinary Approach”, presented at the Third International Symposium on Command and Control Research and Technology, Institute for National Strategic Studies (INSS), National Defense University (NDU), June 17, 1997. (56 KB)

“This paper is concerned with the potential uses by terrorists of Information Warfare techniques. It outlines how an interdisciplinary approach which combines computer science, strategic studies and political science can facilitate open source threat assessments of utility to both government and commerce. The paper provides an overview of software warfare and the activities of hackers before discussing how these techniques and skills may be deployed by sub-state terrorist groups. Two different types of groups, Gulf-based Islamist radicals and the Provisional Irish Republican Army, are discussed.”

Rathmell, A., “Cyber-Terrorism: The Shape of Future Conflict”, Royal United Service Institute Journal, October 1997. (34 KB)

General look at issues involving IW and its use by non-state organizations.

Riley, P., “E-Strikes and Cyber-Sabotage: Civilian Hackers Go Online to Fight”, Fox News, April 15, 1999. (26 KB)

American civilians attack Serbian government computer systems in retaliation for attacks against U.S. and NATO systems. Discusses some of the implications and effectiveness of this activity.

Robinson, C.A., “Western Infrastructures Face Rogue Data Stream Onslaught”, Signal, January 1997. (18 KB)

Article describing the reorganization of the Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) to better streamline protection of DoD networks and align with protection of information infrastructures.

Round, W.O. and Rudolph, E.L. Jr., “Defining Civil Defense in the Information Age”, Strategic Forum, No. 46, September 1995. (15 KB)

Discusses problems related to National Defense in the information age in which traditional defense mechanisms are obsolete.

Saarelainen, M.J., “Information Warfare and Its Impacts on Commercial Enterprises”, December 6, 1996.(9 KB)

Discusses the broad threat of information warfare to commercial networks and the need for proper controls and protection.

Schneider, B.R. and Grinter, L.E., eds., “Battlefield of the Future: 21st Century Warfare Issues”, Air University Press, September 1995.(html)

An online collection of essays on future trends in warfare including weapons of mass destruction and includes two essays on Information Warfare Issues.

Schwartau, W., “Information Warfare Is not InfoSec Repackaged”, NCSA News, April 1996. (8 KB)

Mr. Schwartau defends his writing of Information Warfare: Chaos on the Electronic Superhighway and discusses the difference between information warfare and information security.

Schwartau, W., “The Ethics of Civil Defense and Info Warfare”, NCSA News, June 1996. (15 KB)

Discusses the vulnerability of the information infrastructure to attack and the lack of any clear policy or discussion of how systems should be defended.

Schwartau, W., “Class III Information Warfare: Has It Begun?”, terrorism-list, 1996. (4 KB)

Commentary on organized attacks on financial institutions.

Smith, G., “An Electronic Pearl Harbor? Not Likely”, Issues in Science and Technology Online, Fall 1998. (37 KB)

Mr. Smith provides a critical look at some of the claims of potential damage from information warfare including the propensity for alarmist and exaggerated statistics.

Stein, G.J., “Information Warfare” , Airpower Journal, Spring 1995. (33 KB)

A general overview of information warfare with historical military context.

“Strategic War…In Cyberspace”, Rand Research Brief, January 1996. (8 KB)

A summary of research published in “Strategic Information Warfare: A New Face of War”.

Sundaravaradan, D., “India’s National Security and Defense Preparedness”, March 17, 1998. (29 KB)

High level discussion of India’s major defense issues with a few references to information and telecommunication threats.

Sundarji, K., “Wars of the Near Future”, Asia Week, January 9, 1998.(6 KB)

A short but good article on the the use of IW techniques by small groups or individuals.

Szafranski, R., “A Theory of Information Warfare: Preparing for 2020”, Airpower Journal, Spring 1995. (50 KB)

Discussion of information warfare in the broader context of warfare in general and how it may be applied at both the strategic and operational levels.

Tenet, G.J., “Hearing on Current and Projected National Security Threats”, Testimony Before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence Hearing on Current and Projected National Security Threats, January 28, 1998.(34 KB)

Presents the current CIA perspective on information warfare plus highlights some issues of technology in other areas of national security concern such as organized crime.

Tenet, G.J., “Senate Testimony”, before the U.S. Senate Committee on Government Affairs, June 24, 1998. (21 KB)

Outlines the growing dependence of the United States on information systems and the subsequent threat this creates. Also, discusses terrorist threats.

Thomas, K., “A Revolution in Military Affairs”, Research and Analysis, Issue No. 5, March 1996. (34 KB)

A look at information warfare and technological changes in terms of a Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) from an Australian perspective.

Thomas, T.L., “Russian Views on Information-Based Warfare”, Airpower Journal, Special Edition 1996. (46 KB)

This article attempts to define the Russian understanding of the term information warfare and explores the impact of the information revolution on the Russian military. Like the US, the Russian army is still discussing terminology, concepts, and policy, and has no authoritative definitions or doctrine to offer the international community. In fact, until it catches up with the West in the information technology arena, Russia may be content to use the nuclear deterrent to offset the possibility of anyone using an information operation against it, as the introductory quote to this section demonstrates. Such an option is dangerous for everyone.

Thompson, R., Jr., “Information Warfare”, DACS Newsletter, Spring 1996. (6 KB + graphics)

A short but good overview of information warfare. In particular, a good discussion and graphics on exactly where information warfare affects infrastructure interests and how it would trigger potential combat situations.

Waller, D., “Onward Cyber Soldiers”, Time, Vol. 146, No. 8, August 21, 1995. (22 KB)

Broad discussion of various aspects of information and current vulnerabilities including recent and potential intrusions related to national security.

Ware, W.H., “The Cyber-Posture of the National Information Infrastructure”, RAND, Report Number MR-976-OSTP, 1997. (82 KB)

“This report discusses the vulnerability of the national information infrastructure to external attacks and other kinds of disruptions. It assesses the extent of the data available for measuring this threat and discusses steps that private industry and the federal government can take to reduce national vulnerability.”

Westwood, C.J., “Military Information Operations in a Conventional Warfare Environment”, APCS Paper Number 47, Air Power Studies Centre, Royal Australian Air Force.(72 KB)

The author introduces the concept of Military Information Operations (MIO) which is defined as the information tools and techniques used as weapons against conventional military operations. Of particular interest is the analysis of The Principles of Information Operations.

White House, “Critical Infrastructure Protection”, Presidential Executive Order, July 15, 1996. (11 KB)

Executive Order establishing the President’s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection to advise the President on the threat to the U.S. information infrastructure and necessary actions for protection.

Wilson, M., “Terrorism in a New World–Evolution in Revolution”, e-Prints, Federation of American Scientists,, 1994. (8 KB)

A look at how terrorists can exploit new technologies; from telecommunications to encryption.

Wilson, M., “Hardwar, Softwar, Wetwar: Operational Objectives of Information Warfare”. e-Prints, Federation of American Scientists, 1995. (18 KB)

Interesting discussion of IW threats and how they may affect society. Mr. Wilson discusses IW threats other than Denial of Service.

Wilson, M., “Terrorism in a New World–Evolution in Revolution”, ENN Daily News, September 24, 1996. (9 KB)

Excellent look at the evolving motives and methods of terrorists and how computers and networks can be used for communications, background checks and targeting.

Wilson, M., “Considering the Net as an Intelligence Tool”. e-Prints, Federation of American Scientists, 1996. (51 KB)

Discussion of how online information may be used for intelligence activities and its implications including computer crime, information warfare and terrorism.

Wilson, M., “First Steps Toward a Defense”. e-Prints, Federation of American Scientists, 1996. (26 KB)

Overview of key areas required to defend against IW threats.

Yeary, L.M., “Hackerwar and Its Influence on the Marine Expeditionary Force Commander”, e-Prints, Federation of American Scientists, May 6, 1996. (89 KB)

“The Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF) Commander is increasingly dependent upon the availability of accurate, reliable data. The MEF Commander must be aware of the threat to his information systems, and place a greater emphasis on Information Systems Operations Security as a major part of his over all command and control warfare (C2W) design. In order to do so, it is imperative that he understand the very basic facts surrounding information warfare as it relates to C2W, and more specifically, the threat of hackerwar invasions. Just as imperative is the examination of current and future plans for Marine Corps policies on computer and information system security, evaluating the adequacy of Operations Security (OPSEC) in relation to hacker attacks. “

Sources for information warfare-Related Information

College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research, and Education (CADRE) Homepage

Computer Underground Society

The Global Clearinghouse for Information Warfare on the Internet

Global Technology Research, Inc. Information Warfare Documents

Glossary of Information Warfare Terms

Information Warfare Research Center

Institute for the Advanced Study of Information Warfare (IASIW)

I-War Research Group Information Warfare Media-Labs

Journal of Infrastructural Warfare

Phrack, Inc. Philes

Society of Competitive Intelligence Professionals (SCIP)

Aldrich, Richard W. 1996. International legal implications of information warfare. Airpower Journal vol. X no. 3 ( Fall 1996): 99-110 [online] Available:

Arquilla, John J., and David F. Ronfeldt. 1995. Cyberwar and netwar: new modes, old concepts, of conflict. Rand Research Review vol. XIX no. 2 (Fall) [online]. Available:

Gompert, David C. 1995. Keeping information warfare in perspective. Rand Research Review vol. XIX no. 2 (Fall) [online]. Available:

Stein, George J. 1995. Information Warfare. AirPower Journal vol. IX no. 1 (Spring): 30-39 [online]. Available:

5   Surviving Information Warfare Attacks on Databases – Paul Ammann Sushil (1997)   AH    (Correct)
We consider the problem of surviving information warfare attacks on databases. We adopt a fault tolerance approach to the different phases of an attack. To maintain precise information about the attac… / … Surviving Information Warfare Attacks on Databases Paul Ammann … / … We consider the problem of surviving information warfare attacks on databases. We adopt a…

3   The GCHQ Protocol and its Problems – Ross Anderson (1997)   AH   (Correct)
The UK government is adopting an architecture for secure electronic mail that was designed by GCHQ and is based on the NSA’s Message Security Protocol with a key escrow scheme adapted from a paper b… / …significantly more vulnerable to information warfare. If the protocols were sound but…

2   Computer Vulnerability Analysis Thesis Proposal – Ivan Krsul (1997)   AH   (Correct)
Computer security professionals and researchers do not have a history of sharing and analyzing computer vulnerability information. Scientists and engineers from older or more established fields have l… / …against systems as part of their information warfare efforts. Finally some systems… / …CMET database at the AFIW Air-force Information Warfare the database maintained by Mike…

2   Use of A Taxonomy of Security Faults – Taimur Aslam (1996)    H   (Correct)
Security in computer systems is important so as to ensure reliable operation and to protect the integrity of stored information. Faults in the implementation of critical components can be exploited to… /

1   Cryptovirology: Extortion-Based Security Threats and Countermeasures – Adam Young (1996)     H   (Correct)
Traditionally, cryptography and its applications are defensive in nature, and provide privacy, authentication, and security to users. In this paper we present the idea of Cryptovirology which employs … / …and as munitions in the context of information warfare rather than their traditional… / …be used as a tool for espionage and information warfare. The information extortion attack…

1   An Approach for Analyzing the Robustness of Windows NT Software – Anup Ghosh (1998)     H   (Correct)
Today, the vast majority of software executing on defense systems is untrusted commercial off-the-shelf software such as Microsoft Windows software. Vulnerabilities in this software may be exploited t… / … crime or hostile nations waging information warfare against the United States is a… / …the U.S. must urgently prepare for information warfare attacks. Current security analysis…

1   Authorship Analysis: Identifying The Author of a Program – Ivan Krsul (1996)    H    (Correct)
In this paper we show that it is possible to identify the author of a piece of software by looking at stylistic characteristics of C source code. We also show that there exist a set of characteristics… /

1   A Specialization Toolkit to Increase the Diversity in Operating.. – Calton Pu Andrew (1996)     H   (Correct)
Virus and worm attacks that exploit system implementation details can be countered with a diversified set of implementations. Furthermore, immune systems show that attacks from previously unknown orga… / …public. The potential threat of information warfare and information terrorism is real and … / …The potential threat of information warfare and information terrorism is real and our preparation …

Rudolph P. Darken – Naval Postgraduate         (Correct)
and navigation in virtual spaces. Lead scientist on the Virtual Command and Control Workstation project which is investigating ways in which virtual environment technology can be applied to shipboard… / …Environment Interface to Electronic Warfare Information. Proceedings of the Modeling …

Monitoring Network Logs for Anomalous Activity – Lane Warshaw (1998)    H   (Correct)
We report on the progress of the VenusDB active-database system as driven by WatchDog, an application in network intrusion detection. The application is typical of a class of problems we coin monotoni… / …at Austin sponsored by the Air Force Information Warfare Center Engineering Analysis …

GrIDS–A Graph-Based Intrusion Detection System for Large Networks – Mar Ch    H   (Correct)
There is widespread concern that large-scale malicious attacks on computer networks could disrupt a country’s economy and pose a threat to its national security. We present the design of GrIDS (Graph-… / … Intrusion detection networks information warfare computer security graphs. …

An Information Security Education Initiative for Engineering and.. – Shiu-Kai Chin    H   (Correct)
This paper puts forward a case for an educational initiative in information security at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. Its focus is on the need for such education, the desired educational… / … Defense Science Board Task Force on Information Warfare Defense IW-D The… / …-and of the nation to offensive information warfare attack is largely a self-created…

Doc, Wyatt, and Virgil: Prototyping Storage Jamming Defenses – Mcdermott Gelinas         (Correct)
This paper describes progress to date on three prototype tools for detecting storage jamming attacks. One prototype uses a replay defense; another uses logical replication, and the third can be used t… / … Storage jamming called information warfare by Ammann Jajodia et al. is a … / …C. and BLAUSTINE B. Surviving information warfare attacks on databases. Proc. of the…

Semantic Representations for Collaborative, Distributed Scientific.. – Marianna Kantor    H    (Correct)
It is vital for Los Alamos to respond to the challenge presented by the ongoing revolution in Information Science and Technology. Distributed Information Systems (dis) are having a profound affect not… / …seen as strategic assets information warfare is becoming a primary focus and…

Teaching Introductory Computer Security at a Department of Defense.. – Cynthia E. Irvine.. (1997)    H    (Correct)
The Naval Postgraduate School Center for Information Systems Security (INFOSEC) Studies and Research (NPS CISR) has developed an instructional program in computer security. Its objective is to insure … / … Technology Management and Information Warfare curricula all take courses in…

Unclassified Naval Postgraduate Schoolcenter For Infosec Studies And.. – Cynthia Irvine    H    (Correct)
U) The Naval Postgraduate School Center for Information Systems Security (INFOSEC) Studies and Research (NPS CISR) is developing a comprehensive program in INFOSEC education and research that can bec… / …that to address the challenge of information warfare-protect IW-P a cadre of computer … / …Information Technology Management and Information Warfare curricula participating in classes…

Surmounting the Effects of Lossy Compression on Steganography – Daniel L. Currie, Cynthia E.. (1996)     H   (Correct)
Steganographic techniques can be used to hide data within digital images with little or no visible change in the perceived appearance of the image and can be exploited to export sensitive information…. / … Daniel L. Currie III Fleet Information Warfare Center Amphibious Drive NAB…

Can Critical Information Infrastructure Protection be Achieved With.. – Voas Jmvoas        (Correct)
in the underlying software. Software trust, however, has increasingly become a disappearing commodity. We are bombarded daily with news stories of incidents that can be tied directly to defective soft… / …and communications is vulnerable to information warfare attacks . The commission found… / …launch a comparable scale attack via information warfare are commonplace. They simply consist…

Improving Computing Security during the Development of DOD.. – Sam Nitzberg Telos        (Correct)
Introduction While there are a multitude of programming and development standards in place for designing and building government software systems, there are few specific guidelines and special proces… / …infrastructure through the use of Information Warfare techniques. However the average…

Design-to-Criteria Scheduling: Real-Time Agent Control – Thomas Wagner And (2000)    H   (Correct)
Design-to-Criteria builds custom schedules for agents that meet hard temporal constraints, hard resource constraints, and soft constraints stemming from soft task interactions or soft commitments m… / … . For example in an anti-submarine warfare information gathering application the there … / …such as the CEROS anti-submarine warfare information gathering task Figure we…

Don Information Resources Strategic Plan – Don Ir This    H   (Correct)
is plan provides the broad direction and goals necessary to manage the transition and migration of DON IR into the 21st century. Written from an Enterprise perspective, the plan describes the major ef… / …seven volumes of the TAFIM. Information Warfare IW Information System Security … / … IT Information Technology IW Information Warfare J- Joint Staff JITC Joint…

Air Force Office Of Special Investigations (afosi) – Mission The Air        (Correct)
e forensic and behavioral sciences and hypnosis. 3.10. Executes the US Air Force Technical Surveillance Countermeasures (TSCM) program. 3.11. Functions as the Air Force office of primary responsibilit… / …systems and supports the Air Force information warfare mission. . . Supports the DoD…

Network Vulnerability Analysis Tool Precis – Stephen Bush Stephen        (Correct)
This precis describes a tool for quantifying the vulnerability of a communications network. It is important that information warfare studies include both offensive and defensive strategies in an integ… / … March DRAFT BUSH INFORMATION WARFARE STRATEGY AND CONTROL ANALYSIS … / …network. It is important that information warfare studies include both offensive and…

Information Assurance and the Information Society – Eric Luiijf Tno        (Correct)
Society is on the verge of a new era: the information age. Economical changes, a new way of looking at services and new types of conflict are forecasted. Some glimpses of these changes were noticed du… / …is the TNO programme co-ordinator on information warfare information operations and… / …luiijf Descriptors Information warfare information operations information…

Hcryptographic Access – This Air Force         (Correct)
references, abbreviations, acronyms, and terms. Major commands (MAJCOM), field operating agencies, and direct reporting units may supplement this instruction only by coordinating with Headquarters … / …Send an information copy to HQ USAF Information Warfare Division HQ USAF SCTW Air…

Afm37-127 30 August 1996 29 – We Weather Asc        (Correct)
e Laser Program SMC TN Surveillance and Control ESC TR Technical Resources ESC (RL) TS Technical Support AFFTC Supply & Transportation SA-ALC/OC-ALC TT Technology Transition AFMC TTO VC Advanced Cruis… / …HSC AL AFOSR IC Intelligence and Information Warfare ESC IP International Programs IR…

High-Confidence Design for Security – Shiu-Kai Chin July    H   (Correct)
This article describes methods that establish confidence that implementations meet their specifications and security requirements. These methods are rigorous in nature. They rely on mathematical logic… / … Shiu-Kai Chin July ‘ CACM Issue on Information Warfare The widespread use of networks…

Inoculating Software for Survivability – Anup Ghosh    H   (Correct)
this paper, we are concerned with the survivability of the infrastructure to software flaws, anomalous events, and malicious attack. In the past, finding and removing software flaws has traditionally … / …has made them vulnerable to information warfare attacks. The commission found that… / …launch a comparable scale attack via information warfare are commonplace and consist of a…

Recommendation for Change of – Publication With An        (Correct)
6> Replaces AFSSI 5102, 23 September 1996. Chapter 1—GENERAL INFORMATION 3 1.1. Purpose. ………………………………………………………………………………………………… / … . . Air Force Information Warfare Center AFIWC …. / …facilities. . . Air Force Information Warfare Center AFIWC . . . . Collects…

Transnational Threat Indications and Warning: The Utility of Network.. – John Picarelli..         (Correct)
This paper uses the case of the Japanese cult Aum Shinrikyo to illustrate how network constructions can aid in the development of indications and warning for transnational threats. Following a brie… / …narcotics trafficking terrorism information warfare and weapons of mass destruction…

The Global Diffusion of the Internet-December 1998 1 – Cha Pt Er        (Correct)
this report has been written so that it is not necessary to read the earlier one as a prerequisite, 1 unknown The Global Diffusion of the Internet-December 1998 1 CHAPTER / …or it will be the locus of forms of information warfare from which nobody who is anybody can …

Industrial Espionage Today and Information Wars of Tomorrow – Paul Joyal President         (Correct)
In this report we review case histories of industrial espionage publicized in the media and in Congressional hearings. The threat to the United States as the world’s largest investor in R&D is magnifi… / …alliances national collaboration information warfare. . INTRODUCTION National… / …and crime that can strike any place Information Warfare is another area which has captured…

Replication Does Survive Information Warfare Attacks – Mcdermott Naval (1997)    H   (Correct)
Recent literature on information warfare has suggested that general replication is not useful in dealing with storage jamming attacks. We show that special cases of replication are useful not only in … / … Replication Does Survive Information Warfare Attacks J. McDermott Naval… / … Abstract Recent literature on information warfare has suggested that general…

Autonomous Tactical Communications – Possibilities And        (Correct)
this paper we investigate the specific engineering challenges and the fundamental limitations of such low level, autonomous communication systems. Our conclusions are that mainly distributed computing… / …of weapon. We are now talking about information warfare command and control warfare and…

There is widespread concern that large-scale malicious attacks on computer networks could cause serious disruption to network services. We present the design of GrIDS (Graph-Based Intrusion Detection … / … Intrusion detection networks information warfare computer security graphs. …

Deniable Password Snatching: On the Possibility of Evasive Electronic .. – Adam Young    H   (Correct)
Trojans, viruses and other malware can be categorized as either active or passive in nature. Active viruses (for example) are viruses that perform some outwardly noticeable function. They are typicall… /

Problems with the GCHQ Protocol for Securing the British Government’s .. – Ross Anderson..    H    (Correct)
The UK government is adopting an architecture for secure electronic mail that was designed by CESG, a department of GCHQ, and is based on a key escrow proposal by Jefferies, Mitchell and Walker. It … /

Modeling Uncertainty and its Implications to Design-to-Criteria.. – Thomas Wagner Anita (1999)    H    (Correct)
Open environments are characterized by their uncertainty and non-determinism. Agents need to adapt their task processing to available resources, deadlines, the goal criteria specified by the clients … /

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